The Education Endowment Foundation in the UK has published a review of the international research
into careers education, defined as careers-focused school- or
college-mediated provision designed to improve students’ education,
employment, and/or social outcomes.
Deirdre Hughes and colleagues from the Warwick Institute for
Employment Research found that research in the field is weak and
fragmented, due mainly to the complexity of differing aspects of careers
education being identified and reported in differing ways. Overall,
there are significant shortages in quasi-experimental and experimental
studies in the career development field.
However, longitudinal studies suggest that the way in which teenagers
think about their futures in education and employment has a significant
impact on their future as working adults. Teenagers who have
underestimated the education required for their desired profession, for
example, are statistically more likely to end up not in education,
employment, or training. Young people from poorer backgrounds are more
likely to have career aspirations that are misaligned with their
Teenage experience of work—in particular part-time employment—has
been associated with improved economic outcomes for young adults.
Overwhelmingly, studies identify positive economic outcomes for adults
who worked part-time as teenagers while in full-time education. There is
evidence of a negative impact on immediate achievement outcomes,
although impacts are modest when hours worked are low.
Of the 73 studies included in the review most (46) were carried out in the US, with a smaller number (18) from the UK.
Source: Careers education: International literature review (2016), Education Endowment Foundation