01 02 03 Institute for Effective Education, University of York: The long-term effects of reading interventions 04 05 15 16 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 31 32 33

The long-term effects of reading interventions

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Interventions that target comprehension and phonemic awareness maintain their impact, according to a meta-analysis published in the Journal of Reading Disabilities.

The analysis reviewed 71 studies of reading interventions, each of which had an intervention and control group, post-tests, and follow-up data an average of 11 months later. Among the findings were that normal readers appeared to profit least from reading interventions, particularly at follow-up.
Improvement was not sustained for interventions in preschool: effect sizes fell from +0.34 to +0.12 at follow-up. By contrast, in Years 2 and 3, the effect size only diminished from +0.40 to + 0.26, and for Years 4 and 5, the effect size increased from +0.35 to + 0.43 at follow-up.

The greatest effect sizes at follow-up appeared to result from interventions with a comprehension component.

Source: A Meta-Analysis of the Long-Term Effects of Phonemic Awareness, Phonics, Fluency, and Reading Comprehension Interventions (2016), Journal of Learning Disabilities.

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